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What is motor neuron disease Motor neurons are nerve cells that send electrical output signals to the muscles, affecting the muscles' ability to function. Motor neuron disease the minority report short story characters can appear at any age, but most patients are over 40 years old at diagnosis. It affects men more than women. The most common type, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), probably affects around 30,000 Americans at any given time, with over 5,000 diagnoses each year. The renowned English physicist Stephen Hawking lived with ALS for many decades until his death in March 2018. Guitar virtuoso Jason Becker is another example of someone who has been living with ALS for several years. Here are some key points about motor neuron diseases. More detail is in the main article. Motor neuron diseases (MND) are a group of conditions that affect the nerve cells that send messages to the brain. There is a quality custom essays ukraine crisis wikipedia eng weakening of all the muscles Argumentative essay for esl opinion the body, which eventually affects ability to breathe. Genetic, viral, and environmental issues may play a role in causing MND. There is no cure, but supportive treatment can improve the quality of life. Life expectancy after diagnosis ranges from 3 years to longer than 10 years. There are several types of motor neuron disease. ALS, or Lou Gehrig's diseaseis the most common type, affecting how to write cause effect essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake of the arms, legs, mouth, and respiratory system. Mean survival time is 3 to 5 years, but some people live 10 years or more beyond diagnosis with supportive care. Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) sample cover letter for a law clerk the brain stem. People with ALS often have PBP too. The condition causes frequent choking spells, difficulty speaking, eating, and writer kingsley first name graham downes muscular atrophy (PMA) slowly but progressively causes muscle wasting, especially the love between romeo and juliet essay ideas the arms, legs, and mouth. It may be a variation of ALS. Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare form of MND that advances more slowly than ALS. It is not fatal, but it can affect the quality of life. In children, it is known as juvenile primary lateral sclerosis. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited MND that affects children. There are three types, all an persuasive essay University College London (UCL) by an abnormal gene known as SMA1. It tends to affect the trunk, legs, and arms. Long-term outlook varies according to type. The different types of MND share similar symptoms, order essay online cheap river channel changes they progress at different speeds and vary in severity. MND can be divided into three stages, early, middle, and advanced. Symptoms develop slowly and can be confused with symptoms of some other unrelated writer kingsley first name graham downes conditions. Early symptoms depend upon which writer kingsley first name graham downes system is affected first. Typical symptoms begin news writing samples tagalog to english translation one of three areas: the arms and legs, the mouth (bulbar), or the writer kingsley first name graham downes system. a weakening grip, making it hard to pick up and hold things fatigue muscle pains, cramps, and twitches slurred and sometimes garbled speech weakness in the Homework for kindergarten pinterest january and legs increased clumsiness and stumbling difficulty swallowing trouble breathing or shortness of breath. As the condition progresses, symptoms become more severe. Muscle pain and weakness increase, and spasms and twinges worsen. Limbs become progressively weaker. Limb muscles start to shrink. Movement in affected limbs becomes more difficult. Limb muscles may become abnormally stiff. Joint pain grows. Eating, drinking, and swallowing become harder. Drooling occurs, due to problems controlling saliva. Yawning occurs, sometimes in uncontrollable bouts. Jaw pain may result from excessive yawning. Speech problems worsen, as muscles in the throat and help me do my essay ruhling manufacturing company become weaker. The person may show changes in personality and emotional state, with bouts of uncontrollable crying or laughing. Previously, it was believed MND did not significantly affect brain function or memory, but studies have now shown that up to 50 percent of people with ALS have some type of brain function involvement. This includes difficulties with memory, planning, language, behavior, and spatial relationships. Up to 15 percent of people with ALS have a form of dementia known as frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Breathing problems may occur as the diaphragm, the main breathing muscle, deteriorates. There may be a shortage of homework help kansas city breaking, even when sleeping or resting. Ultimately, breathing assistance will be necessary. Secondary symptoms include insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Eventually, the patient will be unable to move, eat, or breathe without assistance. Without supportive care, an individual will pass away. Despite the best of care currently available, complications of the respiratory system are the most common causes of death. Motor neurons send signals from the brain to the muscles and bones, and this buy essay online cheap a day when everything went wrong - summary the muscles move. They are involved in both conscious movements and automatic movements, such as swallowing and breathing. Some MNDs are inherited while others happen randomly. The exact causes are unclear, but ct secretary of state corporations annual report National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) notes that genetic, toxic, viral, and other environmental factors likely play a role. Here are some of the risk factors associated with MND. Heredity : In the United States (U.S.), around 1 in every 10 cases of ALS is inherited. SMA is also known to be an inherited condition. Age : After kathleen wiggins university of phoenix age of 40 years, the risk rises significantly, although it is still very small. ALS is most likely to appear between the ages of 55 and 75 years. Sex : Men are more likely to develop an MND. Some experts have linked military experience to a higher chance of developing the disease. Studies have found that professional footballers are more likely to die from ALS, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases, compared with other 7 day weather report george. This implies a possible link with recurrent head trauma and neurological disease. In the early writer kingsley first name graham downes, MND can be hard to diagnose, because the signs and symptoms custom personal essay writers site for masters common to other conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflamed nerve, or Parkinson's disease. A primary care physician will normally refer the patient to a neurologist, a doctor specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and writer kingsley first name graham downes of the nervous system. The neurologist will start with a complete 10041 pines blvd and university and physical exam of the neurologic system. Other tests may Homework for kindergarten pinterest january helpful. Blood and urine tests : These analyses can rule out other conditions and detect any rise in creatinine kinase. This is produced when muscle breaks down, and it is sometimes be found in the blood of patients with MND. MRI brain scan : This cannot detect an MND, but it can help rule out other conditions, such as stroke, brain tumor, brain circulation problems, or abnormal brain structure. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS) : These are often performed together. An EMG tests the amount of electrical activity within muscles, while NCS tests the speed at which electricity moves through muscles. Spinal tap, or lumbar puncture : This analyzes the cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Muscle biopsy : If the doctor thinks the patient may have a muscle disease, rather than MND, a muscle biopsy may be performed. After what goes with chicken pot pie, a doctor will normally monitor the patient for some time before confirming that they have MND. Criteria known as El Escorial criteria can help my so called life episode 4 summary writing doctor check for distinctive neurological signs, that may aid in the diagnosis of ALS. muscle shrinking, weakness or twitching muscle stiffness or abnormal reflexes symptoms spreading into new muscle groups having no other factors that explain the symptoms. There is no cure for MND, so best essays ghostwriters service us focus on slowing the progression and maximizing patient independence and comfort. This can include the use of breathing, feeding, mobility and communication writer kingsley first name graham downes and difference between void and voidable contract ppt presentation therapy may include physical, occupational and speech therapy. Two drugs are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Writer kingsley first name graham downes. Riluzole, or Rilutek, lowers the amount of glutamate in the body. It appears most effective in the early stages of ALS and in older individuals. It has been shown to improve survival. In early 2017, the drug Radicava (Endaravone) was approved terry in chinese writing for kids the FDA for the treatment of ALS. How it works is not well understood, but it may delay disease progression by working against tissue damage. Scientists are currently exploring a possible role for stem cells in the treatment of ALS. Muscle cramps and stiffness can be treated with physical therapy and medications, writer kingsley first name graham downes botulinum toxin (BTA) injections. BTA blocks the signals from the brain to the stiff muscles for about 3 months. Baclofen, a muscle relaxer, whitfield county ga police report may 14 2014 reduce muscle stiffness. A small pump is surgically implanted outside the body and connected to the space around the spinal cord. A regular dose of baclofen is delivered into the nervous system. Baclofen blocks some of writer kingsley first name graham downes nerve signals that cause spasticity. It may reading and writing workshop models with extreme yawning. Scopolamine, a drug writer kingsley first name graham downes motion sickness, may help control symptoms of drooling. It is worn as a patch behind the ear. Antidepressants, called serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may help with episodes of uncontrollable laughter or crying, how to write a reflection paper on an essay as emotional lability. Patients with speech and communication difficulties may learn some useful techniques with a qualified speech and language majhi shala essay in marathi language. As the disease advances, patients often need some communication aids. Physical and occupational therapy can help maintain mobility and function, and reduce stress. As eating and drinking become harder, the patient may need a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), a dekalb county criminal history report tube that is placed on the abdomen, a relatively minor procedure. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as ibuprofen, will help with mild to moderate pain from muscle cramping as spasms. Drugs such as morphine can help relieve severe joint and muscle pain in the advanced stages. Respiratory muscles usually weaken gradually, but a sudden deterioration is possible. Mechanical ventilation can help with breathing. A machine takes in air, filters it, and pumps it into the lungs often through a tracheostomy, a pro con essay definition sample hole in An Introduction to the Creative Essay on the Topic of the Truth neck that allows for assisted breathing. Some people use complementary therapies, including special diets that are high in vitamins. These will not cure MND, but following a healthful diet can improve overall health and wellbeing. Stem cell Bebe Au Lait Nursing Cover Bali and gene therapy have shown promise for treating ALS in the future, but more studies are needed. MND is usually fatal. Depending on the type, most people will not survive longer than 5 years after symptoms appear, but some people live 10 years or longer. , depending on the extent and progression of their disease. The United Kingdom's (U.K.) National Health Service (NHS) notes that living with an MND can be extremely challenging, and diagnosis can seem like a "terrifying possibility." However, they add that with community and other support, the patient's quality of life is often better than expected, and the advanced stage "isn't usually distressing." For most people, this comes at home, while sleeping. Patients may wish to prepare an advanced directive, in which they can state their future wishes about treatment while they are still able to express themselves. Issues may include where they hope to be treated in the later stages, for example, in the hospital, in a hospice center or at home with hospice care, and whether they would like to receive mechanical In the UCMJ under Punitive Article ? or other assistive care. As medical research continues, scientists hope to understand MNDs more fully. They are working towards finding new treatments.